Derelicts are located by scanning for them, docking with them is enabled via the docking collar but if you use refresh, back or in any way loose connection with the CE server you will be ejected from the derelict and placed back on your ship.
This is to ensure that captains are not left in limbo on derelicts. If you choose to log out or go inactive past the sessions timeout you will loose the current derelict and on the next login be back on-board your ship.
If you keep being returned to the navigation screen this is an indication that either you are playing beyond the speed of your browser and comms to render screen details and pass data back and forth, this is normally caused by mashing the button, or suffering laggy and erratic browser behavior.
Using back or refresh is likely to loose your position on the derelict and therefore once again return you to the navigation screen. This is not a bug but a design feature to ensure the safety of your account.
Attempting to access derelicts without having properly generating them is classified under exploits and passed on automatically for account review.